Paul S. was born in Vienna in 1933, the only child of Sarah and Friedrich S. His family had lived in Vienna since the Eighteenth Century, and his father worked with an import-export company. His mother had been trained as a hat maker, but stayed home with Paul. At age five, the family left Vienna for Cologne, Germany. From there, his father snuck across the border to Belgium. Paul and his mother were caught on their first illegal attempt to join his father in Belgium, but they succeeded the second time. Learn more and see a video interview with Paul >
Jacob H. was born in Poland in 1932. He lived with his parents and younger brother in the town of Ludmir, where his parents ran a grocery store. In 1941, Nazi troops invaded his town, and Jacob and his family, along with all of the town’s Jews, were moved from their homes into a ghetto. Jacob and his brother were briefly detained during the first pogrom, but were set free after two days and allowed to return to their home in the ghetto, where their parents and other relatives had hidden in the potato cellar. Learn more and see a video interview with Jacob >
Hans A. was born in Berlin and he fled with his family to the Netherlands in 1937. After the invasion by Germany in 1940, Hans and his family avoided arrest and deportation and finally went into hiding. Hans lived with the Kooy family, where he remained until the end of the war. Learn more and see a video interview with Hans >
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